The Romanian musical folklore includes all the creations of the Romanian folk spiritual culture in the field of sound art. It refers to the musical legacy of the Romanians from the village always and the peoples from which they were born. This article refers to the folklore on the current territory of Romania (with few exceptions, created by the change of boundaries throughout history). The folkloric ethnics studied in the article are mostly speakers of Romanian dialects (North-Danubian, but also – in the limit of the researches performed – Aromanian and Meglenoroman).
The musical folklore in Romania can be treated from the perspective of two close sciences: folklore and ethnomusicology. Nowadays, folklorism counts only a few national schools; Among them, a significant position is occupied by the Romanian one. Many other schools have adopted ethnomusicology, a discipline that has expanded spectacularly in the Western world of the second half of the 20th century. While folklore focuses on monograph studies made within an ethnic group, ethnomusicology is concerned with the comparative study of nations. Thus, depending on the perspective, the musical folklore in Romania will fit either between “folkloric” music of other nationalities or between the other branches of Romanian folklore. Whichever of the two paths is first followed, the categories obtained are embedded in the universal folklore.
Bukum is a traditional musical instrument, used mainly by the Romanian pastors in the mountains. Already present among the Dacians and Romans, it was used in the past in Transylvania, Moldavia and Wallachia as a signaling tool in military conflicts. The word is derived from Latinus ~buccinum~, meaning bent horn.
The tube, named (according to various types of instruments) and “trumpet” (from the old german trumpet, “trumpet”) or “tulnic”, is between 1.3 and 3 meters long, made of fir, sycamore, lime, hazel or even (partly and more recently) of metal. It is mainly used for signaling and communication by shepherds in the wooded mountains as well as for the guidance of sheep and dogs.
It is also used by the Khuts, a population of the Eastern Carpathians (Poland, Slovakia, Ukraine and Romania), who speaks a Ukrainian language, but shares many traditions and words with the Romanians.
There are 5 types of bukums.
The Romanian caval is a musical instrument, similar to a five-hole whistle, but larger than this, made of maple or honeysuckle.
The Romanian Caval is a large-scale aerophon instrument belonging to the whistle whistle family. Due to its length, the caval was forced to adopt another type of griffin, which develops a serious defective chromatic minor scale in the register. In the medium and acute register, the completion of the initial ladder can be done by the superior harmonics of the fundamental steps.
Although some instruments of this kind are encountered in musical practice, which are less compatible with the temperate system, the initial design of the cavalier griffin is a well-thought constructive compromise. At the caval, the distance required for a tune interval between two holes is greater than the physical possibilities a person has (departing the fingers from each other). For this reason, the distances between the orifices covered with the adjacent fingers of the hands are physically limited to a semitone interval. The tool grill (five orifices – two plus three) uses the following group of fingers: three fingers are used in the left hand, and two fingers (with a semitone interval between them) in the right hand.
Cimpoi – one of the oldest instruments spread under different names. The song produced by the boxing is characterized by a continuity of the instruments with the arc, being permanently accompanied by a sober sound in the game register. It is used both as a solo instrument and in conjunction with other instruments in the orchestra in which the melodic line usually resides. Cimpoia is part of the group of popular musical instruments endowed with a language device. Vibrations of the tongue and the air column form two merged systems, in varying ratios with respect to each other. One of the peculiarities of the instruments with the tongue is the height of the base tone can be changed. The frequency of the vibrations of the tongue depends on its size and the acoustic particularities of the materials used and is determined by the formula where K expresses the acoustic constant, d – the thickness of the blade, L – its length.
The nai is a musical wind instrument composed of a group of sound tubes of different sizes, glued together (in the Romanian navy, in a slightly concave line) in the order of their length. The flower is adorned with beeswax that is inserted into the tubes. The more wax a tube has, the higher the sound level for that tube.
The Nai – Wind instrument, composed of a series of wooden tubes joined together and closed at the bottom end, the name comes from the old Persian word “Nai” – reed, known to many peoples in the Orient and Middle Asia. In Uzbekistan and Tajikistan, under the same name is the instrument of the type of transverse flute, which is made of bamboo or metal, while in Iraq “nai” is called a wood instrument, which is sung as in the transverse flute. The remote connection of the name of the instrument with the reed was also reflected in the fact that the ancient Greeks called the sirinx. This name introduces a legendary element in the historiography of the term, associated with the nymph that the naves have made in a bundle of cane, to save it from the unbridled lust of the god of the nature of Pan.
Ocarina (Italian ocarina) is called a popular musical instrument made of ceramics (clay clay), metal or wood (especially plum), having the shape of a larger and slightly elongated egg. Each producer can change the shape of the ocarine after its own fantasy and depending on the sound effect it follows. At one end of the instrument there is the place where it blows, and on the body of the ocarine the holes that the performer can close with the fingers, like the whistle, change the height of the sounds.
This blowing instrument emits sounds similar to those of the flute.
Lately, ocarina is no longer found only in popular lutes, but it also appears in professional orchestras.
The name ocarina comes from the Italian word ocarina, the diminutive of the word oca, which means goose. This name was given to the instrument because, in its ovoid form, it resembles a goose head.
Tambale (Ţambal ) is a musical instrument with striking strings, originating in Asia, still enjoying a large spread in Europe, although the XXth century has ensured the interest of cultures from other continents. Known especially as a folk instrument, the tumulus also appears in the cult music composed by authors such as the Hungarian Zoltán Kodály.
Ţambal is also known in the world under other similar variants adapted to the cultures in which it is found or where its popularity has imposed a local form: cymbalum, cymbaloma, cimbalom (the most common English version), cymbal, cymbal, santouri, santur saddle.
The instrument handles specially constructed hammers or other locating objects to obtain unusual sounds or to improve the sound of an instrument that the instrumentist is not satisfied with (sound too thin or too stiff, near-cracked).
Tulnicul is a musical instrument, airborne, tubular, open at both ends, the musician blowing to the narrowest end. The tulnic, made of lime or willow shell, is used especially in the Apuseni Mountains, in the North Carpathian Mountains and in other parts of the Carpathians.
Tulnicul is an ancient musical instrument that is part of the cultural dignity of the Romanian people. Tulnicul is a true symbol of Motirii Country, being used as a means of communication and instrument for the interpretation of songs from the time of the Dacians and according to historians, even earlier.
The Violin with the Horn or the Stroh Violin is a specific bihorean instrument, though invented by the Englishman Augustus Stroh.
It can be said that violin with goarna represents Bihor County.
It is likely that the violin with trumpet was used in Transylvania before 1900. According to some accounts, the playmakers in the village came with “oak, taragoata (taragot and not clarinet) and violin with goarna (or as it is called in the area Apuseni Mountains) “. Another local name of the instrument: “higheghe to tolcer” (higheghe = violin, tolcer = funnel)
In Central and Western Europe, the violin with trumpet was not successful because it was used on classical music scores (Mozart, Bach, Beethoven, Brahms, Haydn, etc.), not forgetting that this instrument produces tonalities specific to lute music, tones which is very good compared to the established violin