ROMANIA

Romanian Musical Instruments
The Romanian musical folklore includes all the creations of the Romanian folk spiritual culture in the field of sound art. It refers to the musical legacy of the Romanians from the village always and the peoples from which they were born. This article refers to the folklore on the current territory of Romania (with few exceptions, created by the change of boundaries throughout history). The folkloric ethnics studied in the article are mostly speakers of Romanian dialects (North-Danubian, but also – in the limit of the researches performed – Aromanian and Meglenoroman).
The musical folklore in Romania can be treated from the perspective of two close sciences: folklore and ethnomusicology. Nowadays, folklorism counts only a few national schools; Among them, a significant position is occupied by the Romanian one. Many other schools have adopted ethnomusicology, a discipline that has expanded spectacularly in the Western world of the second half of the 20th century. While folklore focuses on monograph studies made within an ethnic group, ethnomusicology is concerned with the comparative study of nations. Thus, depending on the perspective, the musical folklore in Romania will fit either between “folkloric” music of other nationalities or between the other branches of Romanian folklore. Whichever of the two paths is first followed, the categories obtained are embedded in the universal folklore.
Bukum is a traditional musical instrument, used mainly by the Romanian pastors in the mountains. Already present among the Dacians and Romans, it was used in the past in Transylvania, Moldavia and Wallachia as a signaling tool in military conflicts. The word is derived from Latinus ~buccinum~, meaning bent horn.
The tube, named (according to various types of instruments) and “trumpet” (from the old german trumpet, “trumpet”) or “tulnic”, is between 1.3 and 3 meters long, made of fir, sycamore, lime, hazel or even (partly and more recently) of metal. It is mainly used for signaling and communication by shepherds in the wooded mountains as well as for the guidance of sheep and dogs.
It is also used by the Khuts, a population of the Eastern Carpathians (Poland, Slovakia, Ukraine and Romania), who speaks a Ukrainian language, but shares many traditions and words with the Romanians.
There are 5 types of bukums.

The Romanian caval
is a musical instrument, similar to a five-hole whistle, but larger than this, made of maple or honeysuckle.
The Romanian Caval is a large-scale aerophon instrument belonging to the whistle whistle family. Due to its length, the caval was forced to adopt another type of griffin, which develops a serious defective chromatic minor scale in the register. In the medium and acute register, the completion of the initial ladder can be done by the superior harmonics of the fundamental steps.
Although some instruments of this kind are encountered in musical practice, which are less compatible with the temperate system, the initial design of the cavalier griffin is a well-thought constructive compromise. At the caval, the distance required for a tune interval between two holes is greater than the physical possibilities a person has (departing the fingers from each other). For this reason, the distances between the orifices covered with the adjacent fingers of the hands are physically limited to a semitone interval. The tool grill (five orifices – two plus three) uses the following group of fingers: three fingers are used in the left hand, and two fingers (with a semitone interval between them) in the right hand.

Cimpoi
one of the oldest instruments spread under different names. The song produced by the boxing is characterized by a continuity of the instruments with the arc, being permanently accompanied by a sober sound in the game register. It is used both as a solo instrument and in conjunction with other instruments in the orchestra in which the melodic line usually resides. Cimpoia is part of the group of popular musical instruments endowed with a language device. Vibrations of the tongue and the air column form two merged systems, in varying ratios with respect to each other. One of the peculiarities of the instruments with the tongue is the height of the base tone can be changed. The frequency of the vibrations of the tongue depends on its size and the acoustic particularities of the materials used and is determined by the formula where K expresses the acoustic constant, d – the thickness of the blade, L – its length.

The nai is a musical wind instrument composed of a group of sound tubes of different sizes, glued together (in the Romanian navy, in a slightly concave line) in the order of their length. The flower is adorned with beeswax that is inserted into the tubes. The more wax a tube has, the higher the sound level for that tube.
The Nai – Wind instrument, composed of a series of wooden tubes joined together and closed at the bottom end, the name comes from the old Persian word “Nai” – reed, known to many peoples in the Orient and Middle Asia. In Uzbekistan and Tajikistan, under the same name is the instrument of the type of transverse flute, which is made of bamboo or metal, while in Iraq “nai” is called a wood instrument, which is sung as in the transverse flute. The remote connection of the name of the instrument with the reed was also reflected in the fact that the ancient Greeks called the sirinx. This name introduces a legendary element in the historiography of the term, associated with the nymph that the naves have made in a bundle of cane, to save it from the unbridled lust of the god of the nature of Pan.

Ocarina (Italian ocarina)
is called a popular musical instrument made of ceramics (clay clay), metal or wood (especially plum), having the shape of a larger and slightly elongated egg. Each producer can change the shape of the ocarine after its own fantasy and depending on the sound effect it follows. At one end of the instrument there is the place where it blows, and on the body of the ocarine the holes that the performer can close with the fingers, like the whistle, change the height of the sounds.
This blowing instrument emits sounds similar to those of the flute.
Lately, ocarina is no longer found only in popular lutes, but it also appears in professional orchestras.
The name ocarina comes from the Italian word ocarina, the diminutive of the word oca, which means goose. This name was given to the instrument because, in its ovoid form, it resembles a goose head.

Tambale (Ţambal )
is a musical instrument with striking strings, originating in Asia, still enjoying a large spread in Europe, although the XXth century has ensured the interest of cultures from other continents. Known especially as a folk instrument, the tumulus also appears in the cult music composed by authors such as the Hungarian Zoltán Kodály.
Ţambal is also known in the world under other similar variants adapted to the cultures in which it is found or where its popularity has imposed a local form: cymbalum, cymbaloma, cimbalom (the most common English version), cymbal, cymbal, santouri, santur saddle.
The instrument handles specially constructed hammers or other locating objects to obtain unusual sounds or to improve the sound of an instrument that the instrumentist is not satisfied with (sound too thin or too stiff, near-cracked)

Tulnicul
is a musical instrument, airborne, tubular, open at both ends, the musician blowing to the narrowest end. The tulnic, made of lime or willow shell, is used especially in the Apuseni Mountains, in the North Carpathian Mountains and in other parts of the Carpathians.
Tulnicul is an ancient musical instrument that is part of the cultural dignity of the Romanian people. Tulnicul is a true symbol of Motirii Country, being used as a means of communication and instrument for the interpretation of songs from the time of the Dacians and according to historians, even earlier.

The Violin with the Horn or the Stroh
Violin is a specific bihorean instrument, though invented by the Englishman Augustus Stroh.
It can be said that violin with goarna represents Bihor County.
It is likely that the violin with trumpet was used in Transylvania before 1900. According to some accounts, the playmakers in the village came with “oak, taragoata (taragot and not clarinet) and violin with goarna (or as it is called in the area Apuseni Mountains) “. Another local name of the instrument: “higheghe to tolcer” (higheghe = violin, tolcer = funnel)
In Central and Western Europe, the violin with trumpet was not successful because it was used on classical music scores (Mozart, Bach, Beethoven, Brahms, Haydn, etc.), not forgetting that this instrument produces tonalities specific to lute music, tones which is very good compared to the established violin

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Gheorghe Zamfir
Gheorghe Zamfir born April 6, 1941) is a Romanian pan flute musician.
Zamfir is known for playing an expanded version of the traditional Romanian-style pan flute (nai) of 20 pipes to 22, 25, 28 and 30 pipes to increase its range, and obtaining as many as eight overtones (additionally to the fundamental tone) from each pipe by changing theembouchure.
He is known as “The Master of the Pan Flute”.
Career
Zamfir came to the public eye when he was approached by Swiss ethnomusicologist Marcel Cellier, who extensively researched Romanian folk music in the 1960s. The composer Vladimir Cosma brought Zamfir with his pan flute to Western European countries for the first time in 1972 as the soloist in Cosma’s original music for the movie Le grand blond avec une chaussure noire. This was very successful, and since then, he has been used as soloist in movie soundtracks by composers Francis Lai, Ennio Morricone and many others. Largely throughtelevision commercials where he was billed as “Zamfir, Master of the Pan Flute”, he introduced the folk instrument to a modern audience and revived it from obscurity.
In 1966, Zamfir was appointed conductor of the “Ciocîrlia Orchestra”, one of the most prestigious state ensembles of Romania, destined for concert tours abroad. This created the opportunity for composition and arranging. In 1969, he left Ciocîrlia and started his own taraf (small band) and in 1970 he had his first longer term contract in Paris. Zamfir discovered the much greater freedom for artistic adventure. His taraf consisted of: Ion Drăgoi (violin), Ion Lăceanu (flutes), Dumitru Fărcaș (tarogato), Petre Vidrean (double bass) and Tony Iordache (cymbalum) all number 1 soloists in their country. This taraf made some excellent recordings (CD Zamfir a Paris). He changed the composition of the band soon after: Efta Botoca (violin), Marin Chisar (flutes), Dorin Ciobaru and Pavel Cebzan (clarinet and tarogato), Petre Vidrean (bass) and Pantelimon Stînga (cymbalum). It is said that this change was made to increase the command of Zamfir and have more artistic freedom.[ A turning point was the recording of Zamfir’s composition “Messe pour la Paix” (Philips). His taraf joined a choir and a symphonic orchestra. This was evidence of the growing ambition. While the Philips recordings of that time were rather conservative, Zamfir preached revolution in the concert halls with daring performances. Some say that this short period was the highlight of his career. In 1977, he recorded “The Lonely Shepherd” with James Last. Zamfir put himself on the world map and since then his career became highly varied, hovering over classical repertoire, easy listening and pop music.
Zamfir’s big break in the English-speaking world came when the BBC religious television programme “The Light of Experience” adopted his recording of “Doina De Jale”, a traditional Romanian funeral song, as its theme. Popular demand forced Epic Records to release the tune as a single in 1976, and it climbed to number four on the UK charts.It would prove to be his only UK hit single, but it helped pave the way for a consistent stream of album sales in Britain. His song “Summer Love” reached number 9 in South Africa in November 1976. In 1983, he scored a No. 3 hit on the Canadian Adult Contemporary chart with “Blue Navajo,” and several of his albums (including 1982’s Romance and 1983’s Childhood Dreams) have charted in Canada as well.
After nearly a decade-long absence, Zamfir returned to Canada in January 2006 for a seven-city tour with the Traffic Strings quintet. The program included a world premiere of Vivaldi’s Four Seasons for PanFlute and string quintet arranged by Lucian Moraru, jazz standards, and well-known favourites.
In 2009, Zamfir was sampled by Animal Collective in the song “Graze” on their EP Fall Be Kind.
In 2012, Zamfir performed at the opening ceremony of the 11th Conference of Parties to the Ramsar Convention at the Palace of the Parliament in Bucharest, Romania.
Soundtracks
His first appearance as soloist interpreter in a movie soundtrack was in Vladimir Cosma’s 1972 Le grand blond avec une chaussure noire, whose soundtrack became a worldwide hit.
Another of his notable contributions was to the soundtrack of the classic 1975 Australian film Picnic at Hanging Rock. His other film scores include La guerre du pétrole n’aura pas lieu (1975) and the Moroccan film Bodas de Sangre (1977).
He was asked by Ennio Morricone to perform the pieces “Childhood Memories” and “Cockeye’s Song” for the soundtrack of Sergio Leone’s 1984 gangster film Once Upon a Time in America. His performance can also be heard throughout the 1984 film The Karate Kid.
One of Zamfir’s most famous pieces is “The Lonely Shepherd”, which was written by James Last and recorded with the James Last Orchestra, and first included on Last’s 1977 albumRussland Erinnerungen (Memories of Russia); it was also released as a single. “The Lonely Shepherd” was used as the theme for the 1979 Australian miniseries Golden Soak. It was also featured in Quentin Tarantino’s 2003 film Kill Bill: Volume 1 and in Nikolas Grasso’s short film Doina.
His song “Frunzuliță Lemn Adus Cântec De Nuntă” (“Fluttering Green Leaves Wedding Song”) appears in the 1991 Studio Ghibli film Only Yesterday.
Bibliography
Zamfir has written an instructional book, Traitė Du Naï Roumain: méthode de flûte de pan, Paris: Chappell S.A., 1975, ISBN 88-8291-286-8, and an autobiography Binecuvântare şi blestem(“Blessing and Curse”), Arad: Mirador, 2000, ISBN 973-9284-56-6.

Ion Păturică
Ion Păturică (born 1928, Teiş, Dâmboviţa County, d. 1979, Bucharest) was a famous Romanian virtuoso cobzar.
He was born in 1928 in Teis, Dâmboviţa County. He is the nephew of a famous cobzar from the place, Marin Mărţană (n. 1900). [1] He starts singing at the bass at the age of seven, under the guidance of his father’s brother. [2] In 1946 he marries Ileana Manole, called “Nut,” and sets himself up definitively in Clejani, having previously gone through this village, visiting a brother of his, married here. On her part she has a nephew, very well known in the world of laughter, Ionita Manole. [3] In Clejani he first sang with Gheorghe Moţoi of the Son (renowned balladist who also sang at the bass, guitar and bass), Florea Băsaru, called Nebunu ‘al Stanii (one of Clejani’s best half-century violonics), Pârvan Răgălie (another well-known violinist of the place, known for his musical notes, considered the professor of fiddlers) and Petre Manole (dentist). [3] In the spring of 1949 it was discovered by the Folklore Institute researchers, who carried out field research in Clejani. Born in Bucharest, he is promoted as a soloist of the “Barbu Lăutaru” Orchestra, where he retires. [4] He is recording with the Barbu Lăutaru Orchestra at the Czechoslovak Supraphon Hora in Clejani in 1950 and the Naipu Mountain in 1956, edited on disks distributed in all the socialist countries of Southeastern and Central Europe. Other songs recorded in the 1950s are the playing songs: Chindia, Hose from Gâşteşti, Hora Lăutărească from Vlasca and Sarba as the wedding.
In 1951 he accompanies the violinist Mitica Burcea from Merenii de Sus, Teleorman County, in records made by the folklorist Alexandru Amzulescu for the archive of the Folklore Institute. In the same year, she takes part in the World Youth and Student Festival for Peace and Friendship in Berlin, where she earns the title of laureate.
In 1957, alongside a band led by Nicu Stănescu, he accompanies the singer Dan Moisescu who recorded the famous song “of Barbu Lăutaru” on the lyrics of Vasile Alecsandri. [3] Since 1975 he has moved to the Rahova district of Bucharest where he lives (and plays in small country houses) until the end of his life.
He conducted artistic tours in the USSR, Czechoslovakia, Poland, GDR, Yugoslavia, Bulgaria, Hungary, Austria, Switzerland, Finland, Israel, Egypt, Turkey, Iraq, Syria, India, China, North Korea, etc.
He died in 1979 in Bucharest. It remains in the memory of posterity as the “last cobzar” in Clejani and the best “right hand” in the historical region of Vlasca.

Toni Iordache
Toni Iordache (December 17, 1942, Bâldana, Ilfov County – February 1987, Bucharest) was a virtuoso instrumentalist, a Romanian performer, a folk musician and a fiddler. I said to the king of the hammock and the god of the mother-in-law.
He was born on December 17, 1942, in the village of Bâldana, Ilfov County, following the traditional music of his family (his father plays the drums and both uncles play the violin). He began to learn the dressing at the age of four, becoming the apprentice of Mitică Ciuciu, a time-savvy connoisseur.
In 1958 he won the gold medal at the Welt Jugend Feier in Vienna, and in 1960 he was asked and later hired by the Orchestra of the folk music ensemble “Ciocarlia”.
Between 1960 and 1969, together with “Ciocarlia” ensemble, there are concerts throughout the country, as well as a tour in London and one in Moscow. In 1968 he won the gold medal at the “Young Music Festival” in Sofia.
In 1969, he participated in a tour in Paris with Gheorghe Zamfir and his band, giving up his contract with the Ciocarlia Ensemble. Since 1970 he collaborates only with the leader of the naistul Gheorghe Zamfir, with whom he arrives in Berlin and Budapest until the end of his life.
In 1973, he collaborated with the Tokyo Symphonic Orchestra of Music in Tokyo and interpreted the “Hary Janos” suite for the Zoltan Kodaly cake as a guest.
Since 1975 he joins Ion Onoriu’s orchestra performing with important instrumentalists such as Costel Vasilescu and Mieluţă Bibescu.
After 1970 he sang with his son, Leonard Iordache.
He suffers from diabetes in 1985, and then one leg is amputated.
He passed away on 1988.

Tudor Gheorghe
Tudor Gheorghe is a Romanian singer, composer and actor, born on August 1, 1945, in Podari commune, Dolj county, from a peasant family. Childhood, but especially adolescence, was difficult. The father, a singer at the church, was arrested as a legionary and political prisoner at Aiud.
During the communist period, Tudor Gheorghe met many oppressors from the communist regime, being forbidden to concert for a decade until the Romanian Revolution of 1989. The artist was censored and in 1987 he was forbidden to concert .[1] After the revolution in December 1989, Tudor Gheorghe returned.
In 1966 he was employed at the National Theater in Craiova, becoming, at 21, one of the youngest actors in the country. After playing in the studio, he debuted on the stage of the National Theater of Craiova in the role of the Young Guardian from Victor Eftimiu’s Black Cock.
Until the real affirmation, which followed in a few years, he continued to play comedy or drama roles with great Kareeni actors of the time in songs such as “The Dream of a Winter by Night” by Tudor Muşatescu, “The Carnival Gentlemen” IL Caragiale or “The Unseen Lady” by Pedro Calderón from Barca.
Between 1970-1980 and 1980-1990 he starred in artistic creations such as “Mitica Popescu” by Camil Petrescu, “The Phosphorus Punished” by John Vanbrugh, “Uncle Vanea” by Anton Cehov, or “The Pitic in the Garden Summer “by Dumitru Radu Popescu.
In 1969, after three years of hard work, he went on ramp with his first recital, “Menestrel in the Courts of Lost”, poetry poetry Lucian Blaga, Tudor Arghezi and Ion Barbu. After two years of in-depth studies, made at the Folklore Institute in Bucharest followed the second recital – “Seven Ballads”.Since 1969, the year of the first recital and until 1996, Tudor Gheorghe has made not less than 22 performances of music and poetry.
Tudor Gheorghe’s success, career, and evolution may seem “come by themselves,” but behind the tremendous success are years of fierce work, intense study, and many stumbling blocks and needs. He was also censored at the concerts in 1981 (http://jurnalul.ro/stire-jurnalul/povestea-unui-spectacol-interzis-522174.html), when the show “On a Frank-poet” on lyrics by Ion Luca Caragiale, was stopped immediately after the premiere.
In 1992 Tudor Gheorghe had his first show after the revolution called “Songs with Closed Mouth”. He returned to the stage in 1998, and since 1999 began the series of performances “The Seasons of Romanian Poetry” in collaboration with conductor Marius Leonard Hristescu.
In 2006, between May 29th and June 4th, Tudor Gheorghe presented at the Palace Hall a series of concerts, entitled “The Beautywoman Week”. The series was composed of 7 concerts:
Spring Symphony – May 29
Symphonic Autumn – May 30
Taraf party – May 31
Doll’s Diligence – June 1
Looking for lost lost – June 2
Symphonic Winter – June 3
Symphonic summer – June 4
In November 2006, the artist presented for the first time the show “Calvary of a Wise Heart”, beginning with songs from the 1930s, performed by artists such as Cristian Vasile and Jean Moscopol. Besides the songs of the era in the show, there are also several ads from the newspapers of that period, in order to recreate more fully the image of those years. In 2007 was released the album with this show.
In November 2007, the show “The Perfume of the Desired Mads” continues the presentation of the 1930s music, begun in the “Calvary of a Wise Heart”.
“At the Edge of Empires” is another show by Tudor Gheorghe, held in March-April 2008. The show is dedicated to the only region in this country that has been under more empires. Music is less well-known, picked and processed from a German-only book. “Rumanische Volkslieder aus der Bukowina” by Matthias Friedwagner, published in 1938, contains 530 musical scores and lyrics collected from Bucovina between 1902-1916 at the initiative of the Ministry of Culture in Vienna.
The year 2008 brings the beloved artist back into a play for almost ten years since the last appearance. Tudor Gheorghe appears in the La Mancha Man musical, just days after the premiere of another show – The Mystery of Words. Man of La Mancha is a musical after Dale Wasserman’s book, which in turn inspires his story after Miguel de Cervantes’ 17th Century novel “El ingenioso hidalgo don Quijote de la Mancha”.
Today Tudor Gheorghe continues his career started in 1966, further supporting recitals in the country and abroad

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